Home » Sanitation


Rapid population growth and urban expansion, combined with inadequate and unsustainable waste management practices, have led to widespread landfill aggregation and the unregulated disposal of solid waste in many cities nationwide. This presents a significant challenge to both environmental well-being and public health. Despite the existence of comprehensive and sufficient waste management laws in India, their practical enforcement falls short of expectations.

In Gurgaon, the generation of solid waste is escalating by approximately 5 percent each year, owing to increased contributions from residential, industrial, and commercial sectors. The city generates an estimated 1,200 to 1,500 tonnes of waste daily, with nearly 40 percent being food waste (referred to as wet waste), 50 percent categorized as dry waste (including 24 percent plastic waste and 11 per cent paper waste), and the remaining 10 percent classified as inert. The residential sector accounts for 80 percent of this waste generation. The responsibility for waste management in Gurgaon is divided among multiple agencies, but is primarily with the Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon (MCG). MCG serves as the apex body for waste planning and management within the city responsible for almost 90 percent of Gurgaon’s 207 square km area. (Sector 29 is under the Haryana Shahari Vikas Pradhikaran whereas IMT Manesar is under the Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructural Development Authority). 

Gurugram is divided into four zones, with Zone 1 generating the most waste, followed by Zones II, III, and IV encompassing both New and Old Gurgaon separated by a Highway. MCG estimates that approximately 60 percent of the waste at the Bandhwari landfill originates from Old Gurgaon, with the remaining 40 percent coming from New Gurgaon. 

Waste is collected at four transit points: Dundahera, Sohna Road, Palam Vihar, and Khandsa, before being transported by trucks to the Bhandwari landfill, a landfill site shared by Gurgaon and Faridabad. MCG uses private contractors for collection and disposal of solid waste. Since 2017, the responsibility for door-to-door collection, transportation, processing, and disposal of solid waste, covering nearly 80 percent of Gurgaon’s areas, has been entrusted to a single concessionaire, Eco green. However, MCG has retained direct responsibility for waste management in certain areas, while the informal sector handles this function in others. MCG has both permanent and temporary sanitary workers. Road sweeping is also undertaken by MCG workers.

As per the Solid Waste Management Rules of 2016, waste must be segregated into three categories: biodegradable, non-biodegradable, and hazardous. It should then be handed over to authorized waste collectors designated by the local body. Ideally, biodegradable waste should be processed, treated, and disposed of on-site through methods such as bio-methanation or composting. The rules also require bulk waste generators, who contribute nearly 40 per cent of urban waste, to manage their waste through in-situ composting. In 2018, the Commissioner of Gurgaon exercised discretionary powers to redefine the threshold for bulk waste generators (BWGs) from entities generating 100 kg per day (as per SWM Rules 2016) to those managing 50 kg per day.

There are 614 BWGs in Gurgaon, including residential units, hotels, and commercial establishments, of which 205 are managing their wet waste in situ and handing over their dry waste to authorized collectors. Some of the societies (BWGs) that have started decentralized waste management include Garden Estate, Hamilton Court, Nirvana Country Block D and Close South, Bestech Park View SPA, The Palms, Richmond Park and Regent House, World Spa, Orchid Petals, Sushant Apartments. Some of the commercial buildings and institutions include Heritage School, Shriram School, Crowne Plaza Hotel, IBIS Hotel, to name a few. MCG has employed various measures to encourage more BWGs to manage their waste. A Swachhta App also exists to identify and clear illegal garbage sites. For dry waste, collection points have been set up along with the help of RWAs and NGOs.

However, the city still suffers from malpractices such as waste burning, open dumping, and non-scientific waste management practices at Bandhwari landfill site which has several large mountains for unsegregated waste piles. The site is polluting groundwater and air as well as affecting the health of neighbouring villagers. There is a need for improved technologies and practices in the waste management function. Citizens need to be made aware of the ill-effects of non-segregation and dumping. Last but not the least, not enough has been done in the area of integrating informal waste and sanitary workers. 

Apart from solid waste, there are various other categories of waste such as bio-medical waste, construction and demolition (C&D) waste, electronic waste (e-waste), and hazardous waste. Due to heavy construction, Gurgaon generates substantial C&D waste. For C&D waste disposal, special spots have been designated by MCG, and dumping in any other area will attract penalties. Gurgaon has a bio-medical waste treatment facility at Dunduma road near Bhondsi while its hazardous waste goes to a waste facility in Village Pali in Faridabad set up with the help of the Haryana Environmental Management Society.  The city has three sewage treatment plants for treating wastewater and is enhancing its sewage treatment facility. 

Proper enforcement of the waste rules in letter and spirit, along with involving all stakeholders can help Gurgaon transform the waste management landscape.